Incorporating Authentic Assessment
Authentic assessment is a measurement approach in which learning objectives are assessed in the most direct, relevant means possible. As such, authentic assessments are criterion-referenced measures designed to promote the integration of factual knowledge, higher-order understanding and relevant skills. Authentic assessments are often based on performance, requiring students to utilize their knowledge in a meaningful context. In authentic assessment, performance expectations guide learning activities and are made clear to students prior to instruction. Generally, authentic assessment is an ongoing process involving both self and external evaluation as well as the gradual compilation of material into a holistic product. While there are many differences between traditional and authentic assessment, it is important to remember that traditional and authentic assessments are complementary models; both types of assessment are important to producing well-rounded, informed students.
Generally relies on forced-choice, written measures
Promotes integration of various written and performance measures
Relies on proxy measures of student learning to represent target skills
Relies on direct measures of target skills
Encourages memorization of correct answers
Encourages divergent thinking in generating possible answers
Goal is to measure acquisition of past knowledge
Goal is to enhance development of meaningful skills
Curriculum directs assessment
Assessment directs curriculum
Emphasis on developing a body of knowledge
Emphasis on ensuring proficiency at real-world tasks
Promotes “what” knowledge
Promotes “how” knowledge
Provides a one-time snapshot of student understanding
Provides an examination of learning over time
Targets simplistic skills or tasks in a concrete, singular fashion
Prepares students for ambiguities and exceptions that are found in realistic problem settings
Priority on summative outcomes or product
Priority on the learning sequence or process
Goals of Authentic Assessment:
Enhance the development of real-world skills
Encourage higher order cognitive skills (analysis, synthesis, evaluation)
Promote active construction of creative, novel ideas and responses
Encourage emphasis on both the process and product of learning
Promote the integration of a variety of related skills into a holistic project
Enhance students’ability to self-assess their own work and performance
Focuses on analytical skills and the integration of knowledge
Time-intensive to manage, monitor, and coordinate
Difficult to coordinate with mandatory educational standards
Reflection of real-world skills and knowledge
Challenging to provide consistent grading scheme
Encourages collaborative work
Subjective nature of grading may lead to bias
Enhances written and oral presentation skills
Unique nature may be unfamiliar to students
Direct match of assessment, instructional activities, and learning objectives
May not be practical for large enrollment courses
Emphasizes integration of learning over time
Challenging to develop for various types of courses and ranges of objectives
Ideas for Implementing Authentic Assessment:
When integrating authentic assessment into the course mix, the most important consideration is measurement of the target learning objectives. For some objectives, a written measurement may be the most authentic assessment; for other objectives, alternate assessments may be required. There are no set rules concerning the design and implementation of authentic assessment; instructors are encouraged to approach assessment via creative, unique means. The following ideas are designed to stimulate novel approaches to authentically assess course-specific learning objectives.
Performance Assessment — Performance assessments measure students’ ability to demonstrate relevant skills in an authentic context. Performance assessments are particularly useful when learning objectives target a behavioral outcome or the development of a content-specific skill.
Portfolios — A portfolio is a collection of student work documenting learning over time. Portfolios highlight student improvement and document a studentÂ’s ability to self-assess, revise, and assemble a final product. In addition to showcasing a studentÂ’s ability, portfolios also provide insight into student motivation and effort.
Group Tasks — In real-world contexts, individuals rarely work in isolation; rather, groups work together toward related objectives and outcomes. As such, authentic group tasks may provide a more realistic assessment of the ability to work collaboratively to apply skills and concepts to solve complex problems.
Brief Investigations — Brief investigations are designed to promote active exploration of various ideas and theories. These types of investigations typically measure mastery of basic concepts via the ability to interpret, describe, hypothesize, explain, or predict future relationships. Brief investigations go beyond the recall of knowledge to emphasize the ability to manipulate basic information in novel settings.
Self-Assessment — Self-assessments encourage active review of personal performance via structured evaluation criteria. The goal of self-assessments is to develop skills for reflection, evaluation, and revision of individual processes and products.
Guidelines for Creating an Authentic Assessment:
Authentic assessments are backward or reverse planning models of instruction. Rather than create assessments based on instructional activities, assessments are developed to meet standards then instructional activities are used to guide students toward the target performance. Ideally, authentic assessments begin with the identification of performance standards. Then, course-specific learning objectives are designed to reflect essential components of these standards. At this point, instructors must identify target performance or skills that would indicate successful achievement of the learning objectives. While identifying target performance, it is equally important to develop a set of criteria that differentiate between various levels of mastery. These criteria are then used to develop a detailed scoring rubric. The key to this procedure is that instructional activities are not designed until AFTER a complete assessment is in place. This criterion-referenced approach sets a clear set of standards, objectives, and performance measures to be targeted by the instructional activities. At the completion of the instructional sequence, the authentic assessment process begins.
1. Identify standards
Standards should be meaningful with real-world applicability.
2. Develop learning objectives
Learning objectives should identify specific, measurable components of the broader standards. Generally, each standard will have several learning objectives
3. Identify target performance or skills
Performance or skills must match the target learning objectives.
Generally, authentic assessments promote activities requiring higher order cognitive skills.
4. Develop performance criteria
Performance criteria should be clear, concise, and openly communicated to students.
5. Create scoring rubric
A detailed, clear scoring rubric provides guidance for students as well as ensuring consistent, fair grading procedures.
6. Design instructional activities
Instruction should directly guide students toward desired performance.
7. Implement authentic assessment
Assessment should be a reiterative process of applying knowledge, understanding basis for knowledge, and demonstrating relevant skills.
Quality authentic assessments emphasize both process and product.
A compilation of multidimensional, varied assessments provide a more accurate and valid measure of student learning than a singular assessment.
Authentic assessments should include opportunities for self-assessment and revision.
Professional Development Sequence in
The CCTL Online curriculum is designed to increase the teaching effectiveness of community college faculty and build the instructional leadership of supervisory personnel. This curriculum is focused on the effective design and implementation of quality instruction, contemporary instructional technologies, and other instruction using innovations such as peer-based collaboration and active learning strategies. This sequence of courses will collectively provide participants with a foundation of instructional theories, skills, and practices to support existing professional development efforts in community colleges. The CCTL Online curriculum is a cost-effective professional development model that is accessible to all faculty and instructional leaders in community colleges, irrespective of field of specialization or location.This curriculum is designed for community college faculty and instructional leaders who desire to expand their knowledge and skills in instructional strategies and methods. The curriculum is also appropriate for faculty supervisors who make decisions about classroom instruction.